The whole point of an IRA (Roth or otherwise) is to save for retirement. Unfortunately, things don’t always go as planned, and you may find yourself needing to withdraw money from your Roth IRA before age 59½.
The most important thing to know is this: Contributions (that is, the money that you put into your Roth) can come out at any time, free of taxes and penalties.
Distributions of Earnings
When it comes to distributions of earnings, however, things get a bit more complicated. That’s why I prepared this handy flowchart (and the following explanations) to help you determine whether or not distributions of earnings will be subject to income taxes and/or penalties.
Please note, this flowchart only applies to earnings when your Roth does not include any amounts converted from a traditional IRA or other retirement plan. If your Roth does include such amounts, please see “Distributions After a Roth Conversion” below.
Qualifying Reasons for Distributions
The following are the “qualifying reasons for distributions” referenced in the first step of the flowchart:
- You have reached age 59½.
- The distribution was made to your beneficiary after your death.
- You are disabled.
- You use the distribution to pay certain qualified first-time homebuyer amounts.
Any earnings distribution prior to the first day of the fifth year after your first Roth was established will be taxed as ordinary income, at whatever your tax rate is at the time.
Example: You open a Roth IRA on May 18, 2009. The 5-Year Rule will be satisfied as of January 1, 2014.
Other Exceptions to 10% Penalty
Even if your distribution is not for a “qualifying reason,” you may be able to escape the 10% penalty (but not ordinary income taxes) if any of the following situations apply:
- You have unreimbursed medical expenses that exceed 10% of your adjusted gross income.
- You are paying medical insurance premiums after losing your job.
- The distributions are not more than your qualified higher education expenses.
- The distribution is due to an IRS levy of the qualified plan.
- The distribution is a qualified reservist distribution.
- The distribution is a qualified disaster recovery assistance distribution.
- The distribution is a qualified recovery assistance distribution.
All Roth IRAs Are Viewed as One
When applying each of the above rules, the IRS views all of your Roth IRAs together as one big Roth IRA. For example, once you’ve met the 5-Year Rule for one of your Roth IRAs, you’ve met it for all of them. Also, distributions from a Roth will not count as distributions of earnings until you’ve withdrawn an amount greater than the total of all of your contributions to all of your Roth IRAs.
Example: In 2011, you contribute $2,000 to a Roth. In 2012, you open a Roth with a different brokerage firm, and contribute $3,000 to it. By 2013, each Roth has grown to $5,000. You could withdraw $5,000 from either (but not both) of the two Roth IRAs without having to pay taxes or penalties because your total contributions were $5,000 and because the IRS considers them to be one Roth IRA.
Distributions After a Roth Conversion
If, you’ve converted money from a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA, things get slightly trickier.
Any distributions of converted amounts (assuming they were taxable at the date of the conversion) will be subject to the 10% penalty (though they’ll be free from ordinary income taxes) if the distribution occurs less than 5 years after the first day of the year in which the conversion occurred. If, however, the distribution was for a “qualifying reason” or you meet one of the “other exceptions” above, the distribution will be free from penalty.
If the conversion included amounts that were not taxable (because they came from a nondeductible IRA), those amounts will not be subject to the 10% penalty even if they are withdrawn from the Roth prior to the first day of the fifth year after the date of the conversion.
Order of Distributions
According to IRS Publication 590, distributions are assumed to occur in the following order:
- Regular contributions.
- Conversion and rollover contributions, on a first-in-first-out basis (generally, total conversions and rollovers from the earliest year first). Take these conversion and rollover contributions into account as follows:
- Taxable portion (the amount required to be included in gross income because of the conversion or rollover) first, and then the
- Nontaxable portion.
- Earnings on contributions.
Example: During 2011, you contribute $5,000 to a Roth IRA. You also convert $20,000 from a traditional IRA into your Roth IRA. Of that $20,000, $13,000 was taxable upon the conversion, and $7,000 was not because it came from nondeductible IRA contributions.
In 2012, you withdraw $8,000 from your Roth. The first $5,000 is free from tax and penalty because it’s a return of your contributions. The next $3,000 is assumed to come from the taxable portion of your converted amount. As a result, it will be free from income tax, but it will be subject to the 10% penalty because the distribution occurred prior to the first day of the fifth year after the date of the conversion.
In 2013, you withdraw another $15,000 from your Roth. The first $10,000 will be the remainder of the taxable portion of the conversion (and will again be free from income tax but subject to the 10% penalty). The remaining $5,000 will be considered to have come from the nontaxable portion of the conversion, and it will be free from both tax and penalty.
Admittedly, things can get a bit tricky. Hopefully this helped to clear things up.