Oblivious Investor http://www.obliviousinvestor.com Low-Maintenance Investing with Index Funds and ETFs Fri, 22 May 2015 12:00:55 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=3.9.6 Investing Blog Roundup: Rick Ferri Launches Robo-Advisory http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/investing-blog-roundup-rick-ferri-launches-robo-advisory/ http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/investing-blog-roundup-rick-ferri-launches-robo-advisory/#comments Fri, 22 May 2015 12:00:55 +0000 http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/?p=7435 This week, well-known author/advisor Rick Ferri announced that he will soon be launching a robo-advisory service, targeted toward younger investors. Cinthia Murphy of ETF.com has the scoop:

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Interested in economics? Pick up a copy of my latest book:

Microeconomics Made Simple: Basic Microeconomic Principles Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Disclaimer: Your subscription to this blog does not create a CPA-client or other professional services relationship between you and Mike Piper or between you and Simple Subjects, LLC. By subscribing, you explicitly agree not to hold Mike Piper or Simple Subjects, LLC liable in any way for damages arising from decisions you make based on the information available herein. Neither Mike Piper nor Simple Subjects, LLC makes any warranty as to the accuracy of any information contained in this communication. I am not a financial or investment advisor, and the information contained herein is for informational and entertainment purposes only and does not constitute financial advice. On financial matters for which assistance is needed, I strongly urge you to meet with a professional advisor who (unlike me) has a professional relationship with you and who (again, unlike me) knows the relevant details of your situation.

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Moving Money from Taxable Accounts to Retirement Accounts http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/moving-money-from-taxable-accounts-to-retirement-accounts/ http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/moving-money-from-taxable-accounts-to-retirement-accounts/#comments Mon, 18 May 2015 12:00:58 +0000 http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/?p=7433 A reader writes in, asking:

“I recently came into some money, about $40,000 of assorted stocks. Is there a way to get this into one of my retirement accounts? I gather that I am not allowed to roll it into my 401K or IRAs, is that correct?”

It is correct that you cannot roll money from a regular taxable brokerage account into a retirement account. (If you could, there would be no point in having contribution limits, because you could save as much as you wanted in a taxable brokerage account and just roll it over.)

However, there may be a way to ultimately get the money into a retirement account. Specifically, if you are not maxing out your retirement account contributions at the moment, you could use the recently acquired assets to pay the bills while bumping up your retirement account contributions to the max.

For example, if you have a 401(k) with a contribution limit of $18,000 and a Roth IRA with a contribution limit of $5,500 (for a total of $23,500), yet you’re only making contributions of $15,500 per year, you have an additional $8,000 of contribution space that’s currently going unused. So you could bump your contributions up to the max and use the taxable investments to help pay the bills (to the tune of $8,000 per year). After 5 years, the $40,000 sum would effectively have been transferred into your retirement accounts.

This tends to work well with recently acquired sums of cash (e.g., from the sale of a business or from downsizing living quarters). It also works well for recently-inherited assets, because when you inherit something you (in most cases) get a step-up in cost basis. That is, your cost basis will usually be equal to the fair market value of the asset on the date of the original owner’s death, meaning that there would be little-to-no capital gains tax to pay if you sell the assets (which you would be doing in order to free up cash to max out your retirement account contributions).

This strategy does not work quite as well for investments that you’ve held for a long time, and which have large unrealized capital gains — because there could be a significant tax cost to selling the assets in order to free up cash to make additional retirement account contributions. In such cases, whether it makes sense to do it depends on several factors, such as:

  • How much tax you’d have to pay if you liquidated the assets now;
  • How much tax you would have to pay if you waited and did it later (For example, if you expect your income to decline in the near future, it may make sense to wait if doing so will allow you to pay a lower rate of tax on the capital gains.);
  • How long you expect to hold the assets (the longer, the greater the tax cost of keeping them in a taxable account and paying taxes on interest/dividends along the way); and
  • Whether you expect your heirs to be inheriting the assets in the not-entirely-distant future (if so, it may make sense to simply hold the assets in the taxable account and let your heirs inherit them so they get a step-up in cost basis).

Interested in economics? Pick up a copy of my latest book:

Microeconomics Made Simple: Basic Microeconomic Principles Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Disclaimer: Your subscription to this blog does not create a CPA-client or other professional services relationship between you and Mike Piper or between you and Simple Subjects, LLC. By subscribing, you explicitly agree not to hold Mike Piper or Simple Subjects, LLC liable in any way for damages arising from decisions you make based on the information available herein. Neither Mike Piper nor Simple Subjects, LLC makes any warranty as to the accuracy of any information contained in this communication. I am not a financial or investment advisor, and the information contained herein is for informational and entertainment purposes only and does not constitute financial advice. On financial matters for which assistance is needed, I strongly urge you to meet with a professional advisor who (unlike me) has a professional relationship with you and who (again, unlike me) knows the relevant details of your situation.

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Investing Blog Roundup: Finding Balance in Bonds http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/investing-blog-roundup-finding-balance-in-bonds/ http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/investing-blog-roundup-finding-balance-in-bonds/#comments Fri, 15 May 2015 12:00:18 +0000 http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/?p=7431 Update: Vanguard unpublished the article mentioned below for some reason. I’ve asked them via Twitter if they’ll be republishing it, but have not yet received an answer.

Over the last several years, with interest rates being so low, many investors have been making changes to their bond portfolios. Some are choosing longer duration bonds in the hope of getting a decent yield, while other investors are making exactly the opposite decision — using short-duration bonds in order to minimize the price decline they’ll experience when rates do eventually go up. This week, Vanguard discusses the pros and cons of each approach:

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Thanks for reading!

Interested in economics? Pick up a copy of my latest book:

Microeconomics Made Simple: Basic Microeconomic Principles Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Disclaimer: Your subscription to this blog does not create a CPA-client or other professional services relationship between you and Mike Piper or between you and Simple Subjects, LLC. By subscribing, you explicitly agree not to hold Mike Piper or Simple Subjects, LLC liable in any way for damages arising from decisions you make based on the information available herein. Neither Mike Piper nor Simple Subjects, LLC makes any warranty as to the accuracy of any information contained in this communication. I am not a financial or investment advisor, and the information contained herein is for informational and entertainment purposes only and does not constitute financial advice. On financial matters for which assistance is needed, I strongly urge you to meet with a professional advisor who (unlike me) has a professional relationship with you and who (again, unlike me) knows the relevant details of your situation.

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Why Would an Experienced Investor Buy a Target-Date Fund? http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/why-would-an-experienced-investor-buy-a-target-date-fund/ http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/why-would-an-experienced-investor-buy-a-target-date-fund/#comments Mon, 11 May 2015 12:00:12 +0000 http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/?p=7429 A reader writes in, asking:

“I saw the recent article on Squared Away about target funds appealing to inexperienced investors. [Mike’s note: see here.] I gather that you use a target date fund yourself, despite being an experienced investor. Could you elaborate on why experienced investors might want to use a target date fund?”

Target-date funds, like anything else, are not a good fit for everybody. But personally I’m of the opinion that they’re a sophisticated tool, offering fantastic value for their cost (at low-cost fund families anyway). And I’ve heard from many experienced investors, citing a variety of reasons why they choose to use target-date funds.

I’ve heard from people who use target-date funds primarily for the time savings. They found that it took quite a while to rebalance a portfolio of several different asset classes across many different accounts, and they like not having to deal with that.

I’ve heard from people who use target-date funds because they consider themselves to be math-averse (or finance-averse) and they found the process of rebalancing to be stressful.

I’ve heard from people who use target-date funds to simplify the portfolio for the sake of their spouse (e.g., in case their spouse outlives them).

I’ve heard from people who use target-date funds to simplify their portfolio to protect (to some extent) against cognitive decline.

I’ve heard from people who use target-date funds to make it easier to “stay the course” in market downturns. That is, with a target-date fund, they only see the overall portfolio decline, which is always less than the decline in the worst asset class. So there’s no longer the temptation to bail out of the worst-performing fund(s).

As for me personally, I use a LifeStrategy fund (which is very similar to a target-date fund) in order to avoid a common behavioral finance error: tinkering.

You see, even in the “passive/index investing” camp, there are many differences of opinion about how to build a portfolio. For example, there is no consensus regarding how much of your bond allocation should be invested in corporate bonds. Ditto for high-yield bonds, international bonds, mortgage-backed bonds, TIPS, and so on. And there are similar differences of opinion regarding the stock portion of the portfolio as well.

So what’s an investor to do?

Really, the only thing to be done is simply pick one option and stick with it, even if you’re not 100% sure that it’s the correct option (and, to be clear, you won’t be sure). For some people, “sticking with it” is easy to do. For other people, it’s not so easy.

For me, what I found was that, when I went to rebalance our portfolio (which was approximately every month when I made new retirement account contributions), I would often be tempted to make one small change or another based on whatever I had read recently. Now, with an all-in-one fund, that temptation is gone. I simply log in, contribute as much money as I want to contribute, and that’s all there is to it.

Interested in economics? Pick up a copy of my latest book:

Microeconomics Made Simple: Basic Microeconomic Principles Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Disclaimer: Your subscription to this blog does not create a CPA-client or other professional services relationship between you and Mike Piper or between you and Simple Subjects, LLC. By subscribing, you explicitly agree not to hold Mike Piper or Simple Subjects, LLC liable in any way for damages arising from decisions you make based on the information available herein. Neither Mike Piper nor Simple Subjects, LLC makes any warranty as to the accuracy of any information contained in this communication. I am not a financial or investment advisor, and the information contained herein is for informational and entertainment purposes only and does not constitute financial advice. On financial matters for which assistance is needed, I strongly urge you to meet with a professional advisor who (unlike me) has a professional relationship with you and who (again, unlike me) knows the relevant details of your situation.

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Investing Blog Roundup: Financial Cognitive Decline http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/investing-blog-roundup-financial-cognitive-decline/ http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/investing-blog-roundup-financial-cognitive-decline/#comments Fri, 08 May 2015 12:00:47 +0000 http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/?p=7428 This week, Tara Siegel Bernard reports on recent research showing that even people who are deemed by experts to be “cognitively normal” can already be experiencing a decline in financial skills. This is yet another reminder of why it’s critical to take steps to protect yourself in case of cognitive decline in your later years.

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Thanks for reading!

Interested in economics? Pick up a copy of my latest book:

Microeconomics Made Simple: Basic Microeconomic Principles Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Disclaimer: Your subscription to this blog does not create a CPA-client or other professional services relationship between you and Mike Piper or between you and Simple Subjects, LLC. By subscribing, you explicitly agree not to hold Mike Piper or Simple Subjects, LLC liable in any way for damages arising from decisions you make based on the information available herein. Neither Mike Piper nor Simple Subjects, LLC makes any warranty as to the accuracy of any information contained in this communication. I am not a financial or investment advisor, and the information contained herein is for informational and entertainment purposes only and does not constitute financial advice. On financial matters for which assistance is needed, I strongly urge you to meet with a professional advisor who (unlike me) has a professional relationship with you and who (again, unlike me) knows the relevant details of your situation.

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Can I Do a Partial Roth Conversion? http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/can-i-do-a-partial-roth-conversion/ http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/can-i-do-a-partial-roth-conversion/#comments Mon, 27 Apr 2015 12:00:06 +0000 http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/?p=7426 Quick housekeeping note: My wife and I are on vacation for the next couple of weeks, so there will be a gap in the publishing schedule. The next article will be published on Friday 5/8.

A reader writes in, asking:

“On several occasions, you’ve explained Roth conversions with language that indicates you can convert parts of your traditional IRAs to a Roth over time, for a variety of reasons.

When I looked into doing this several years ago, I encountered the rule that required you to value ALL your traditional IRAs and pay the tax on the full value of all of them converted.  I decided against it because that didn’t make sense to me (why would I convert only part when I have to pay tax as if I converted all of them).

Did I misunderstand the rules?  Is there something else I am missing?  I see so little reference to this anywhere.”

Yes, you can do a partial conversion. And in no case will you have to pay tax on more than the amount converted. To be more specific:

  • If your traditional IRA(s) do not contain any amounts from nondeductible contributions, the amount of the conversion will be included in your taxable income for the year, and
  • If you do have amounts from nondeductible contributions in your traditional IRA(s), a portion of the conversion will be included in your taxable income.

Most likely, the misunderstanding arose from the fact that the IRS aggregates all of your traditional IRAs when calculating the taxable percentage of a conversion. That is, if you have multiple traditional IRAs, they’re all considered to be one big traditional IRA for the purpose of this calculation.*

The percentage of the conversion that is not taxable is calculated as:

  • The sum of all non-deductible contributions in all of your traditional IRA, divided by
  • The sum of: all of your traditional IRA balances on 12/31 of the year of the conversion, plus any distributions you made during the year, plus any conversions made during the year.

The idea behind this calculation is to make it so that you won’t have to pay tax twice on a given amount of money. That is, if you didn’t get a deduction when you put money into the traditional IRA (i.e., you paid tax on the money before it went into the account), then you should not have to pay tax again when you move the money to a Roth IRA.

For example, if you have one traditional IRA, and it has a value of $10,000, of which $3,000 came from non-deductible contributions, and you convert the entire traditional IRA, only $7,000 of the conversion would be taxable. The $3,000 nondeductible contribution gets to be converted tax-free.

But in the event of a partial conversion, you don’t get to choose which dollars get converted. Instead, your conversion is considered to come from non-deductible contributions and from pre-tax money on a pro-rata basis — hence the need for the math above.

*This is not true for all IRA-related applications. In some cases, the IRS does consider separate accounts to be separate accounts.

Interested in economics? Pick up a copy of my latest book:

Microeconomics Made Simple: Basic Microeconomic Principles Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Disclaimer: Your subscription to this blog does not create a CPA-client or other professional services relationship between you and Mike Piper or between you and Simple Subjects, LLC. By subscribing, you explicitly agree not to hold Mike Piper or Simple Subjects, LLC liable in any way for damages arising from decisions you make based on the information available herein. Neither Mike Piper nor Simple Subjects, LLC makes any warranty as to the accuracy of any information contained in this communication. I am not a financial or investment advisor, and the information contained herein is for informational and entertainment purposes only and does not constitute financial advice. On financial matters for which assistance is needed, I strongly urge you to meet with a professional advisor who (unlike me) has a professional relationship with you and who (again, unlike me) knows the relevant details of your situation.

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Investing Blog Roundup: ETFs vs. Index Funds — Why Not Both? http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/investing-blog-roundup-etfs-vs-index-funds-why-not-both/ http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/investing-blog-roundup-etfs-vs-index-funds-why-not-both/#comments Fri, 24 Apr 2015 12:00:02 +0000 http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/?p=7425 I’m frequently asked what I think about using ETFs as opposed to index funds. As I’ve written before, I don’t think it makes a big difference for most investors. And, as Rick Ferri reminds us this week, there’s no reason you can’t use  both.

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Thanks for reading!

Interested in economics? Pick up a copy of my latest book:

Microeconomics Made Simple: Basic Microeconomic Principles Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Disclaimer: Your subscription to this blog does not create a CPA-client or other professional services relationship between you and Mike Piper or between you and Simple Subjects, LLC. By subscribing, you explicitly agree not to hold Mike Piper or Simple Subjects, LLC liable in any way for damages arising from decisions you make based on the information available herein. Neither Mike Piper nor Simple Subjects, LLC makes any warranty as to the accuracy of any information contained in this communication. I am not a financial or investment advisor, and the information contained herein is for informational and entertainment purposes only and does not constitute financial advice. On financial matters for which assistance is needed, I strongly urge you to meet with a professional advisor who (unlike me) has a professional relationship with you and who (again, unlike me) knows the relevant details of your situation.

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HSAs and Medicare: a Potential Social Security Pitfall http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/hsas-and-medicare-a-potential-social-security-pitfall/ http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/hsas-and-medicare-a-potential-social-security-pitfall/#comments Mon, 20 Apr 2015 12:00:13 +0000 http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/?p=7423 A reader writes in, saying:

“I thought that I completely understood [Social Security strategies] but I sure didn’t understand the Medicare Part A/HSA complication.  Please make sure that your readers are aware of this significant complication, which doesn’t exist if you don’t have an HSA.”

The complication the reader is referring to is that, beginning with the first month you are enrolled in Medicare, you cannot contribute to a health savings account (HSA). The potential trouble arises as a result of the fact that it’s possible to become enrolled in Medicare without having intended to enroll. In fact, in some cases, you may even be unintentionally retroactively enrolled in Medicare, thereby making you ineligible for HSA contributions in a month in which you already made such contributions.

Automatic Enrollment in Medicare

The following comes from the Code of Federal Regulations:

Individuals who need not file an application for hospital insurance. An individual who meets any of the following conditions need not file an application for hospital insurance:

  1. Is under age 65 and has been entitled, for more than 24 months, to monthly social security or railroad retirement benefits based on disability.
  2. At the time of attainment of age 65, is entitled to monthly social security or railroad retirement benefits.
  3. Establishes entitlement to monthly social security or railroad retirement benefits at any time after attaining age 65.

In other words, you will automatically be enrolled in Medicare Part A* when you reach age 65 if at that time you are already receiving Social Security retirement benefits (or spousal or widow/widower benefits) or have been receiving Social Security disability benefits for more than 24 months. Alternatively, if you claim Social Security benefits (including as a part of a “file and suspend” strategy) at any point after age 65, you’ll automatically be enrolled in Medicare Part A at that time.

In addition, the same CFR section states that, “an application under § 406.10 that is validly filed within 6 months after the first month of eligibility is retroactive to that first month. If filed more than 6 months after that first month, it is retroactive to the 6th month before the month of filing.” In other words, if you become enrolled in Medicare Part A after reaching age 65, they’re going to backdate your enrollment by 6 months (but no earlier than age 65).

How About an Example?

Example: Jane files for her Social Security retirement benefit at age 66. As a result of that application, she is automatically enrolled in Medicare Part A. In fact, she will automatically be retroactively enrolled in Medicare Part A going back to age 65½ (i.e., 6 months prior to her application). If Jane had made contributions to an HSA in any of those 6 months for which she is now retroactively enrolled in Medicare, she has a problem.

What To Do About This?

The way to avoid this situation is as follows:

  • If you file for Social Security benefits at any point prior to age 65, you will want to stop making HSA contributions at age 65.
  • If you aren’t claiming any Social Security benefits until after age 65, you will want to stop making HSA contributions 6 months prior to the date at which you file for Social Security benefits.

If you have already made HSA contributions in a month in which you were ineligible due to automatic Medicare enrollment, your options are to:

*When you are enrolled in Medicare Part A, you are automatically enrolled in Part B as well, but you are given the opportunity to opt out of it, should you want to do so.

Interested in economics? Pick up a copy of my latest book:

Microeconomics Made Simple: Basic Microeconomic Principles Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Disclaimer: Your subscription to this blog does not create a CPA-client or other professional services relationship between you and Mike Piper or between you and Simple Subjects, LLC. By subscribing, you explicitly agree not to hold Mike Piper or Simple Subjects, LLC liable in any way for damages arising from decisions you make based on the information available herein. Neither Mike Piper nor Simple Subjects, LLC makes any warranty as to the accuracy of any information contained in this communication. I am not a financial or investment advisor, and the information contained herein is for informational and entertainment purposes only and does not constitute financial advice. On financial matters for which assistance is needed, I strongly urge you to meet with a professional advisor who (unlike me) has a professional relationship with you and who (again, unlike me) knows the relevant details of your situation.

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Investing Blog Roundup: Why Did My Share Price Fall? http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/investing-blog-roundup-why-did-my-share-price-fall/ http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/investing-blog-roundup-why-did-my-share-price-fall/#comments Fri, 17 Apr 2015 12:00:58 +0000 http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/?p=7422 One of the most common questions I see (both via email and on the Bogleheads forum) is why the share price of a given fund went down unexpectedly — perhaps even on a day when the market is up. This week, Vanguard provides a clear answer to that question:

Investing Articles

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Thanks for reading!

Interested in economics? Pick up a copy of my latest book:

Microeconomics Made Simple: Basic Microeconomic Principles Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Disclaimer: Your subscription to this blog does not create a CPA-client or other professional services relationship between you and Mike Piper or between you and Simple Subjects, LLC. By subscribing, you explicitly agree not to hold Mike Piper or Simple Subjects, LLC liable in any way for damages arising from decisions you make based on the information available herein. Neither Mike Piper nor Simple Subjects, LLC makes any warranty as to the accuracy of any information contained in this communication. I am not a financial or investment advisor, and the information contained herein is for informational and entertainment purposes only and does not constitute financial advice. On financial matters for which assistance is needed, I strongly urge you to meet with a professional advisor who (unlike me) has a professional relationship with you and who (again, unlike me) knows the relevant details of your situation.

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9 Good Reasons for Claiming Social Security Early http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/9-good-reasons-for-claiming-social-security-early/ http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/9-good-reasons-for-claiming-social-security-early/#comments Mon, 13 Apr 2015 12:00:48 +0000 http://www.obliviousinvestor.com/?p=7408 There’s been quite a bit of talk over the last few years about the fact that most people should wait to claim Social Security, if they can afford to do so. And that’s true, for two reasons:

  1. Waiting to claim Social Security reduces risk, because it is a decision that works out best in the most financially scary scenarios (in which you live a very long time and therefore have to fund a very long retirement).
  2. Waiting to claim Social Security maximizes spendable dollars, in most cases. (That is, with inflation-adjusted interest rates as low as they are right now, for more than half of people, delaying Social Security will result in having a greater number of inflation-adjusted dollars to spend over the course of their lifetimes.)

But it’s important to understand that, while it makes sense in the majority (i.e., greater than 50%) of cases to delay, there are still many situations in which a person would be well served by claiming Social Security earlier rather than later.

The first and most obvious reason to claim Social Security early is simply that you need the income immediately.

But, beyond that, there are still several cases in which, if you do not need the risk reduction that comes from delaying Social Security, your spendable dollars are likely to be maximized by claiming benefits earlier rather than later.

What follows are eight examples of such cases. (To be clear, this is not meant to be an exhaustive list. These are simply some of the more common such situations.)

1. You are single (and have never been married) and you have a significantly shorter than average life expectancy due to a medical condition.

2. You are the spouse with the lower primary insurance amount in a married couple and you or your spouse have a shorter than average life expectancy.

3. You are the low-PIA spouse in a married couple, and you’re many years younger than your spouse (meaning that, when you are age 62, your first-to-die life expectancy is significantly shorter than the first-to-die life expectancy of a couple in which both spouses are age 62).

4. You are the low-PIA spouse in a married couple, you are younger than your spouse, and you are filing early in order to allow your spouse (i.e., the higher-PIA spouse) to claim spousal benefits while he/she allows his/her own retirement benefit to continue growing until 70.

5. You are a widow/widower, and you’re claiming retirement benefits as early as possible while allowing your widow/widower benefit to continue growing until your full retirement age. Or, you’re claiming widow/widower benefits as early as possible while allowing your retirement benefit to continue growing until age 70.

6. You have one or more children who would qualify for child’s benefits once you file for your retirement benefit (thereby making the cost of waiting significantly greater than it is for most people).

7. Inflation-adjusted interest rates are high (unlike they are right now), making the option of taking the money and investing it a better deal. (Interest rates would have to be super high, however, for this to be a good deal for the high-PIA spouse in a married couple.)

8. You will qualify for a sizable government pension from work that was not covered by Social Security, and you’re claiming Social Security spousal benefits early while delaying your pension (so that the pension grows and so that you can put off applicability of the government pension offset).

Interested in economics? Pick up a copy of my latest book:

Microeconomics Made Simple: Basic Microeconomic Principles Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Disclaimer: Your subscription to this blog does not create a CPA-client or other professional services relationship between you and Mike Piper or between you and Simple Subjects, LLC. By subscribing, you explicitly agree not to hold Mike Piper or Simple Subjects, LLC liable in any way for damages arising from decisions you make based on the information available herein. Neither Mike Piper nor Simple Subjects, LLC makes any warranty as to the accuracy of any information contained in this communication. I am not a financial or investment advisor, and the information contained herein is for informational and entertainment purposes only and does not constitute financial advice. On financial matters for which assistance is needed, I strongly urge you to meet with a professional advisor who (unlike me) has a professional relationship with you and who (again, unlike me) knows the relevant details of your situation.

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